Medically reviewed on August 17, 2022 by Jillian Foglesong Stabile, MD, FAAFP. To give you technically accurate, evidence-based information, content published on the Everlywell blog is reviewed by credentialed professionals with expertise in medical and bioscience fields.
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If you have a thyroid condition or thyroid disorder, you’ve likely wracked your brain trying to determine the cause—do your diet or lifestyle choices play a part? You might even have blamed your current medications for your thyroid problem.
It can help to know that thyroid conditions are often genetic.  However, just because your thyroid condition could be genetic doesn’t mean you can’t remain in control of your health.
Read on to discover possible genetic links in thyroid diseases and learn about available testing. With this knowledge, you’ll be better prepared to manage your thyroid problems and live a healthy life.
Scientists have studied the relationship between genes and thyroid problems in recent years. Their findings suggest that genes can play a major role in thyroid diseases. 
In fact, genes may determine the levels of two hormones that contribute to most thyroid conditions: thyroxine and TSH.
Let’s take a closer look at these two important hormones:
Some studies suggest that up to 67% of thyroxine and TSH concentrations are genetically determined.  If this is true, many thyroid risk factors may also be genetically predetermined.
Preliminary studies have isolated several genes that may be responsible for thyroid issues. These genes include: 
Although studies have shown a correlation between these genes and the likelihood of thyroid problems, no single gene has been identified as the root cause of any thyroid problem. 
Instead, many genes may be responsible for mutations that can contribute to thyroid diseases. 
Genetics may also be responsible for thyroid conditions outside of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. These diseases include:
If you suspect your genes are behind your thyroid disorder, your healthcare provider will likely need to perform specialized gene tests. However, if you’re wondering how to check your thyroid at home, you can check in on your thyroid hormone levels. An at-home lab test that measures your thyroid hormone levels is an excellent place to start.
For most people, answering the question, “are thyroid problems genetic?” isn’t enough. They may also want to know about available testing.
Like most genetic testing, genetic testing for thyroid dysfunction involves analyzing gene sequences and molecules for genes associated with diseases. To do this, healthcare providers may rely on a technique known as thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). 
In short, FNAB tests involve a healthcare provider inserting a very fine needle into a thyroid nodule to extract a sample. The healthcare provider can then analyze the thyroid cells obtained in the sample for genes associated with thyroid dysfunction. 
To analyze the genes, the healthcare provider may utilize one or more of the following gene sequencing techniques: 
Although these tests are highly specialized and must be performed by trained professionals, you can still learn about your thyroid function through at-home hormone tests.
With the Thyroid Test from Everlywell, you can measure three main thyroid hormones. You can even check in on thyroid antibodies (TPOab).
Whether you have a family history of thyroid problems or are just interested in your hormone levels, Everlywell can help you take back control of your health.