Pets like dogs and cats can cause allergies

What dogs are considered hypoallergenic?

Medically reviewed by Neka Miller, PhD. To give you technically accurate, evidence-based information, content published on the Everlywell blog is reviewed by credentialed professionals with expertise in medical and bioscience fields.


Nothing can truly describe the connection between dogs and humans. They’re known as a “man’s best friend” for a reason. Whether you like having a furry friend to accompany you in your everyday life, a hunting companion, or extra security, dogs serve many roles and can bring some true love to your life.

Unfortunately, some people are allergic to dogs, making canine companionship nearly impossible or at least highly inconvenient. The good news: some dogs are hypoallergenic. Before you make the choice between getting a dog or loading up on antihistamine medication, consider confirming your allergy with an at-home allergy testing kit. If you find that you do indeed have a dog allergy, a hypoallergenic dog breed might be right for you. Read below to learn more.

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Understanding Dog Allergies

Your immune system is designed to identify and eliminate harmful substances and microbes, like viruses, bacteria, and fungi. A healthy immune system is actually highly adept at this process, but some people have a malfunctioning or over-sensitive immune system. For these people, the immune system identifies something normally harmless, like a type of food or pet dander, as a threat. In response, the immune system goes into overdrive, attacking healthy tissue and causing an allergic reaction.

While most people associate pet allergies with fur, the main allergen is actually a type of protein that is found in a pet’s saliva, urine, and skin. Most pet allergies are triggered by dander, or the dead skin cells that pets shed.

Dog allergens can easily accumulate anywhere. Fur can collect on furniture, and people can carry the allergens on their clothes. Simply petting or grooming a dog can disperse allergens into the air, where they can hang suspended for long periods.

Dog Allergy Symptoms

The severity and specific symptoms of an allergic reaction can vary. Some people may experience a skin reaction, known as allergic dermatitis, when they come into physical contact with an allergen. Simply petting a dog or getting licked or scratched can result in eczema, itchy skin, or raised, red patches. Alternately, if you touch your eyes after petting a dog, you may get red, itchy eyes.

Most commonly, allergen particles land on the membranes of the eyes and nasal passages, causing intense inflammation. This can result in:

  • Watery, itchy eyes
  • A runny nose and sneezing
  • Nasal congestion
  • Itching and discomfort in the nose, the roof of the mouth, and throat
  • Coughing
  • Pain and pressure in the face
  • Postnasal drip
  • Swollen, blue skin under the eyes
  • Rashes on the face, neck, or upper chest

Some allergens can easily make their way into your lungs. Those with severe allergies or asthma may experience breathing problems, coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

If you are especially sensitive, you may have a reaction from 15 to 30 minutes following exposure. If you are less sensitive or if you weren’t exposed to many allergens, you may not experience any symptoms for a few days.

What Dogs Are Hypoallergenic?

It’s important to note that every dog produces allergens. Every dog has saliva, urine, and skin that sheds and creates dander. This means there is no such thing as a truly hypoallergenic dog, and no scientific evidence to date suggests that such a dog exists (the same goes for hypoallergenic cat breeds).

However, some dog breeds can produce fewer allergens than others, which may reduce the chance and severity of allergic reactions. The trick is to look at dog breeds that naturally shed less fur. Less shedding equates to less dander and fewer allergens knocked into the air.

Bichon Frise

These pups have tightly curled (but still plenty soft) coats that keep dander in place until they are brushed or otherwise groomed.

Hairless Chinese Crested

Less hair generally means less dander, especially with this small dog breed. Hairless Chinese Crested dogs aren’t completely hairless, but choosing individual dogs with less hair can be a big help to your allergies.

Havanese

Similar to the Bichon Frise, Havanese dogs have a coat that is curly, wavy, and deceptively thick.

Poodles

Poodles (and poodle mixes) are known for their curly coats that hang onto dead hair and dander. This also means that poodles typically require regular grooming, brushing, and haircuts.

Irish Water Spaniel

Irish Water Spaniels feature no undercoat and sufficiently curly hair, all of which minimizes the potential for shedding. However, this dog breed requires regular brushing and a full grooming session every few months.

Basenji

Basenjis have the cat-like habit of grooming themselves. This does mean more saliva, but it significantly reduces the amount of dander that finds itself on your furniture or in your air. While Basenjis do have short fur, they tend to shed less than other dogs with similar short coats.

This is by no means an exhaustive list, but you generally want to find a dog breed with curly, thick hair as opposed to fur.

Dog Hair vs. Dog Fur

Dog hair tends to grow longer and has a longer growth cycle. That naturally means less shedding. Curly, wavy hair traps any dander that does shed, preventing it from entering your home environment. As dog hair grows much like human hair, it will usually require more grooming and trims.

By comparison, dog fur is shorter and denser. The growth period for fur is considerably shorter, which leads to more shedding and thicker growth during the colder months. Most dogs with fur also have double coats, which comprise a coarser overcoat and a softer undercoat for temperature regulation.

Reducing Dog Allergens

Remember, no dog is completely allergen-free, even the “hypoallergenic” breeds. If you do suffer from allergies, the best mode of prevention is to stay away from dogs altogether. However, if that isn’t an option, you can take some steps to reduce your exposure to dog allergens and better manage potential allergic reactions.

  • Make your bedroom a dog-free zone. You spend at least one-third of your life in your bedroom. Experiencing allergies in bed can lead to extensive sleep problems. Prevent your dog from entering your bedroom and clean the room regularly to remove allergens that might be carried by air or on your clothes. Consider investing in a HEPA air filter to pull any dander out of the air.
  • Get rid of carpeting and upholstered furniture. Dander is “sticky” and can easily cling to carpets and furniture. Replace carpeting with wood, tile, or vinyl flooring. If you can’t get rid of your carpet, consider at least replacing it with a low-pile option, and try to get it steam cleaned frequently.
  • Brush your dog outside to remove excess dander and fur.
  • If possible and appropriate for your dog’s breed, consider keeping your dog outside to reduce the amount of dander that ends up in your home.

Treatments for dog allergies also exist. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medications, like antihistamines, corticosteroids, and decongestants. Immunotherapy may also be an option. It’s a procedure involving a series of shots that “train” your immune system to ignore pet dander.

As a dog owner, it can be difficult keeping pet allergens at bay in your home. If you suffer from a pet allergy, make sure you go for a hypoallergenic breed like the ones mentioned earlier — Poodle, Irish Water Spaniel, Bichon Frise, etc. Choosing a hypoallergenic dog breed will help mitigate excess amounts of dog dander and will keep your allergies in check. If you aren’t completely sure that you even have an allergy, getting an allergy test is the best place to start. Everlywell offers an at-home allergy test kit that can test your body’s reactivity to 40 different indoor and outdoor allergens, including dog and cat dander. The process of submitting your blood samples is quick and easy, and once you receive your results, you can take actionable steps with your healthcare provider.


References

1. Pet Allergy: Are You Allergic to Dogs or Cats? Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. URL. Accessed February 3, 2022.

2. Pet allergy. Mayo Clinic. URL. Accessed February 3, 2022.

3. How To Tell If Your Dog Has Hair Or Fur, & Why It Matters. dogtime.com. URL. Accessed February 3, 2022.

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